Looking on the internet for information on progesterone testing is a nightmare. It’s nearly impossible to find information on what the #’s mean, or what numbers that would be ideal for breeding. Several websites will offer different advice and many vets aren’t helpful at all.
So what numbers am I looking for when progesterone testing?
When do I start progesterone testing with my female?
What numbers are best for an AI (Artificial Insemination)?
Well that depends on the type of Artificial Insemination you will be doing, if the Stud is local or you’re receiving shipped fresh chilled or frozen semen.
We’ll break it down for you in a way that’s simplified and won’t make you go cross-eyed. For you slow readers, skip to “Cheat Codes”
The use of artificial insemination in the dogs has experienced a tremendous increase in popularity over the last several years due to bot its increased success rate and the flexibility it allows the dog breeder. A stud dog can be utilized successfully and easily from thousand of miles away, allowing the breeder to choose the best genetics for his or her bitch without the risks, expense, and other difficulties associated with transportation of the bitch.
A previous or current champion’s genetics can be preserved indefinitely through the use of frozen semen. There are several factors that determine the success or failure of artificial insemination. The most important of these factors is proper timing of the insemination.
Old rules of thumb such as breeding between days 10 to 14 will not work in every case because of the variable length of standing heat (receptivity) and because the optimum time to breed may occur any time during, before, or after standing heat. Vaginal smears have been used to help diagnose the proper time to breed. They are at most, helpful as a rough guide to know when to begin insemination when doing a natural breeding (Live AI) But they are not accurate enough to use alone when utilizing fresh chilled or frozen-thawed semen.
A more exact method to properly time insemination is to measure serum progesterone levels. During estrus, progesterone levels are as low as 0–2 ng/ml early on, rise to levels of 2.0–2.9 ng/ml during the LH surge (Lutenizing Hormone; initiates ovulation), continue to rise to 4–8 ng/ml on the day of ovulation (2 days after the LH surge), and may peak at levels as high as 25 ng/ml post ovulation.
After ovulation has occurred, the oocytes (eggs) must go through a maturation process before they are capable of being fertilized. This process takes approximately 2 days. When fully mature, eggs can then be fertilized for about 48 hours. Thus, the optimum time to breed when using fresh chilled semen is 2 days after ovulation and 3–4 days after ovulation when using frozen semen due to its shorter life span.
If previous breeding history is unknown, begin progesterone testing 4–6 days after the onset of heat. If the levels of progesterone are baseline, then the dog should be retested every 3–4 days until a level of progesterone is detected that is consistent with the onset of the LH peak.
Call the stud owner as soon as the bitch is showing signs of heat. Contact the Stud owner after the first progesterone test is performed to begin coordination and planning of the semen shipment.
It has often been said “Timing is everything” and this is certainly true when using artificial insemination in the bitch. By planning ahead and using these guidelines, one can maximize the probability of pregnancy.
Progesterone is a hormone produced by the ovaries that rises as the heat cycle progresses. Early in the heat cycle the progesterone values will usually read less than 1.0 ng/ml. The first significant rise in progesterone usually coincides with the “LH Surge”. The LH stands for luteinizing hormone and is released by the pituitary gland in the brain.
Ovulation occurs about 48 hours after the LH surge. The progesterone level at the time of LH surge is usually about 2–3 ng/ml. The progesterone will rise to about 5–8 ng/ml at the time of ovulation. Canine eggs are not ready to be fertilized at the time of ovulation and take about 2 days to mature. Once mature the eggs remain fertile for 2 to 3 days and then begin to deteriorate.
Fresh chilled breeding’s are usually performed 48 hours after ovulation and frozen breedings about 72 hours after ovulation. Due dates can be determined by counting forward 65 days from the LH surge (LH surge is day 0) or 63 days from ovulation. This is accurate +/- one day.
When your female goes into heat the first drop of blood is counted as “day 1 of her heat.” Schedule a progesterone test with your vet for day 4 or 5. Based on her progesterone test results, your vet will instruct you on when to come back for a follow up test.
There is no single exact number for determining the time of ovulation; we are looking for a number between 4ng/ml to 8ng/ml as the start of ovulation. Most typical bitches ovulate around 5ng/ml.
The magic number you’re looking for is 5ng/ml. Example: If you test on a Monday and she is at 3.9 and then you go back and test again on Wednesday and now she’s at a 6.5… You know that she passed 5ng/ml on Tuesday. Count Tuesday as when she ovulated (dropped her eggs)
DETERMINING BREEDING DAYS
Once you’ve determined the day of ovulation by using the method above, you now know (approximately) when she dropped her eggs.
The best day(s) to breed will next depend on which type of Artificial Insemination you will be doing.
Ask your vet if they perform Surgical AI and TCI beforehand so you know your options.
BREEDING DAY(S) CHEAT CODES
NATURAL BREEDING (LIVE AI)
This is where the Stud is collected next to the female and an AI is performed or the 2 dogs are allowed to mate. Most breeders will opt for a live AI instead of letting the dogs mate in order to avoid injury to the stud dog.
24–48 hours (1–2 days) after progesterone reaches 5ng/ml. Skip a day and do a 2nd AI if you have the option available to you.
FRESH CHILLED SEMEN
48 hours (2 days) after progesterone reaches 5ng/ml.
72 hours (3 days) after progesterone reaches 5ng/ml.
TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
Artificial insemination (AI) can be performed by a number of different methods and utilizing sperm from fresh, extended or frozen sources.
There are 3 Common Methods used in Artificial Insemination:
AI, Surgical Insemination and TCI (Transcervical insemination)
All 3 methods will work, but when shipping in a Stud we recommend Surgical Insemination or TCI.
Both Surgical Insemination and TCI have higher %’s of success with shipped semen. Ask your vet about the methods that they perform and are most experienced with. If you’re shipping semen in and your vet offers surgical or TCI options.
As a general, rule stud dogs should produce 10 million sperm per pound of body weight and have more than 75 percent progressive forward motility with less than 20 percent miscellaneous morphologic defects. Since “normal” dog semen lives another 3-to-7 days in the bitch, the better the semen quality, the more leeway there is in ovulation timing.
Too few sperm, abnormal sperm, or poor motility may all result in poor fertility. Semen evaluation of the male prior to a breeding is always recommended, but if it wasn’t done before breeding and the bitch fails to conceive, it should be done after the bitch is determined to be not pregnant. Sometimes this can be overcome by intrauterine insemination or multiple inseminations, but in other cases, the infertility may be too severe.
EVERY FEMALE IS DIFFERENT
With most female dogs they enter their cycle every 6 months but may vary as much as 4 to 12 months between cycles. Variation can exists between the length of the “heat cycle”, with the range being as short as 4 days up to 3 weeks in length. The average time from the onset of heat to the actual mating period is 9 to 11 days.
Making matters more confusing, some dogs have “silent heats” meaning little or no obvious signs of heat such as swelling or bleeding. Some females could have whats called “split heats” where they go into a heat cycle but stop short without ovulating and then go into a fertile heat period weeks later. Heat cycles can vary meaning that just because she was ready to be bred on the 11th day the last heat doesn’t necessarily mean she will be ready on the 11th day of the next heat.
DECIDING ON A STUD
A Stud that is an actual Producer can out produce themselves on a consistent basis. They are the few with the ability to stamp their look with every litter.
“A dog can be a truly great show dog and a poor sire. A dog can hate the show ring and never win a point and be an outstanding sire. It is just as simple as that.”
The biggest mistake breeders, novice or veteran, can make is to confuse their show dogs with their breeding dogs. They can be the same. We hope they will be the same. Often they are not.
There are those who say show wins are the indicator of a dog’s value to the breed. In other words, if many judges agree a particular dog is the current ideal in its breed, the dog should be bred to. I agree — but only to a degree.
You can get every judge in the country to agree that the dog of the hour is the dog of the hour, but that same dog can be a complete disappointment in the breeding department.
If a dog’s quality is not realized in the whelping box, all we have is a box full of ribbons and nothing more.
This is not to say a winning dog cannot also be an outstanding producer. Records prove otherwise. But I cannot stress strongly enough that it is the producing ability that must be looked to and not the show record!
BEFORE DECIDING TO HAVE A LITTER
Ask yourself what you are looking to achieve by producing a litter of puppies. Do you have enough money saved for ultrasounds, X-rays and a c-section?
What about an emergency?
The last thing you want to have happen is an emergency with your female and then not being able to provide the care she needs. This could cost you the entire litter and possibly worse, the loss of your female.
Are you able to provide proper care for the puppies? Can you afford to bring the pups in to the vet for the necessary shots and vaccinations or do you know how to administer vaccines and de-worm the puppies?
Do you have a market to sell the pups? Are the parents registered? If they don’t have papers, you can forget about selling the puppies. Hold off until you have a quality female with a good pedigree and registration papers.
You’ll save yourself a ton of work and a long exercise in breaking even if you’re lucky, but most likely it will be a loss.
Some who are new to breeding, think that they will have a litter and just sit back and count cash all day while playing PS4. It doesn’t work like that, this requires a ton of work, dedication and sleepless nights.
Hopefully this aids responsible breeders in the process of producing healthy pups.
• 2018–2019 Mascot Grand Champion Tone “The Clone” • Interview: Double D’s Adam Davis • Top Studs 2019: “The Producers” • Top Upcoming Studs: Future Stars Who’s Stock is Rising Fast • Breeder’s Corner: Progesterone Testing, Determining Breeding Days, Fresh Chilled VS Frozen, Regular AI’s, TCI’s & Surgical Insemination • Interview: Tone Roldan of Duval Bullies • Allergy Season: Solutions to One of the Worst Seasons in Years • Marketing Your Kennel or Stud: What Methods Work Best? • Beyond the Hype- Top Supplements That Actually Work • The 3rd Annual People’s Choice Awards: Coming June 2019 • BULLY KING Searching for 2019 Mascots: 3 Spots Remain • Plus Much More Inside Issue №15!
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Ed Shepherd is one of the original founders of the breed known as the American Bully
Ed started at a time where American Pit Bulls for the most part, were tall, thin, and followed the APBT breed standard. When Ed first started breeding, he did some research on the internet and purchased a couple of pit bulls. He soon realized that both he and his kids loved the temperament of these dogs and it was the breed of their choice from that day forward.
HOW GOTTILINE STARTED
The Gottiline Pit bull Bloodline, otherwise known as the Gotti Pitbulls, Gottyline or Gotty Pitbulls have become one of the most popular bloodlines in American Bully Community. This bloodline was started by Richard Barajas of West Side Kennels. He actually owned the first sire,The Notorious Juan Gotty.
Back in 1997 he bought Gotty for an amount of $1,300, from Tony Moore. Richard probably didn’t know at the time what a great buy Juan Gotty was. Tony owned Grey Line Kennels in Los Angeles.
Tony Moore of Greyline pitbulls produced Notorious Juan Gotty, a dog who later would be the credited for the Gottiline bloodline. Tony sold Gotty to Richard Barajas when he was still a puppy. Gotty was a 100% Greyline dog. The dogs Tony produced were known for their drive and gameness, far from the American Bullies that you see today. Gary Moore of Blue Star Kennels refers to dogs without drive as “Kibble Munchers” and wants nothing to do with lazy dog without drive.
Gary’s ideal dog would be able to climb trees, take down criminals. This was a temperament that Ed Shepherd was not interested in. This extreme drive or “gameness” is not found in today’s American Bullies and was is known to exist find in lines like Greyline, amongst a few others considered “old school bloodlines.”
Some die hard game American Pit Bull Terrier fans would argue that dogs like Gotty were dogs in the early stages of the transformation of the American Bully breed and that these dogs were not true APBT lines (think Colby, Jeep, Old Family Red Nose etc.) But that is a controversial topic and an entire article in itself.
Whichever side of the argument you’re on, many of the old school bloodlines and the majority of the 100% greyline dogs still carried the original APBT temperament and drive. New Troijan Kennels in Los Angeles for example has 100% greyline dogs. Their dogs for the most part are known to have extremely high energy levels and drive, and are able to preform well in sports such as weight pulling, and protection training.
Richard Barajas was breeding Juan Gotty at the time. His kennel name was West Side Kennels. So Ed decided to come up with an idea for creating a name for his yard. The name Ed decided on was Gottyline.
HOW ED SHEPHERD CREATED DAXLINE
Richard was a friend of Eds and at the time, and although he didn’t really like the idea Ed using the name “Gottyline”, he didn’t make a big deal of it and began to use the name as well. Ed chose to spell Gottyline as it reads on Juan Gotty’s papers with the letter “Y”. Richard however, began using the name but spelling it with an “I” and using “Gottiline.” This is the reason you will see this bloodline spelled both ways from time to time.
THE PURCHASE OF 21 BLACKJACK
Ed had purchased Blackjack at the time Cruz was first getting into the Razors Edge bloodline. At the time, Cruz wasn’t as interested in Blackjack, because Blackjack wasn’t a Razors Edge dog. At the time, there was no Gottiline. Things really started to take off for Ed after purchasing 21 Blackjack from Cruz of Bow Wow Pits.
Cruz is perhaps most well known for his Stud Blow, a Monster G son. Cruz went on to be successful in his own right, creating a clothing line based off of Blow. The clothing line was simply known as Blow Genes.
Ed started to show 21 Blackjack and soon champed him out. From the popularity of 21 Blackjack, Ed started to build his Kennel. After years of line breeding and inbreeding, he created a solid recognizable look and had a yard full of amazing bullies.
Around 2008, Ed bred West Coast Gottyline’s Romeo to his female Barbee. This is how he produced the now world famous Gottyline’s Dax. After Dax began to mature, Ed realized that he had produced a truly remarkable stud dog, that at the time, was his best production to date. He then renamed his kennel and bloodline Daxline.
Dax was considered an extreme Bully. He had a very easy going temperament and was completely non aggressive. Ed has no interest in breeding dogs with aggression, high energy or poor temperament. Dax finished his Show Career as an ABKC Grand Champion in the Extreme Class, but it was not without controversy.
Dax stood around 15 inches at the withers, weighed 75 pounds, and had a 24 inch head. He was Ed’s only house dog at the time. Ed simply states that he is loved part of the family and is also too valuable to leave outside.
Dax is known as the best producing bully in the history of the American Bully movement. There is some debate as to whether Dax was an F1, F2 or F2b dog, but what isn’t up for debate is whether Dax could produce. There was an ongoing joke among breeders that his ability to produce was so consistent he “could lay dick to a Chihuahua and drop a Champion or two.” We’re kidding of course, but his ability to produce was legendary.
Dax Sired Ch Lucky Luciano, Louis V, Ch Magoo, Cashpot, Dual GrCh G-Train, Spartacus, Phenom, Boss, Kill Bill, Heat Stroke, Lil Sitch, Status, Havoc, Goku, Uso, Wyatt Earp among many others.
Several of the top programs in the country have utilized what only Dax could bring to a yard- that Daxline signature head, neck and shoulders. Without Dax, we would be without most of the Top American Bullies today. Thank you Ed, for trusting & sticking to your vision, especially before everyone became a believer.
On top of being one of the most important figures of the American Bully movement, which has now become a worldwide phenomenon… Ed is one of the most down to Earth people you’ll ever meet. He’s always willing to pass down what he’s learned to those willing to listen, and is always respectful. For as much as he’s accomplished he remains humble. You’ll never hear him put down another breeder or dog.
From all of us here at BULLY KING Magazine, and from everyone who’s been impacted by Ed’s contribution to the American Bully Breed, we want to say thank you. It’s only right that Ed will be the receiving our 1st ever “Lifetime Achievement Award” later this year.
The Most Common Argument Online: “The American Bully is Not a real Pit Bull”
No kidding! One look, and you should be able to tell the difference between an American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT) and the much bulkier American Bully. If not, we’ll help you there.
The American Bully is the fastest growing breed in terms of popularity. Everyone seems to want to have their own bully these days. But, there is a ton of confusion as to what an American bully is..
Is it a pit bull? Is it a bulldog? Are they athletic? Are they aggressive? You’ve heard the term “exotic”, “micro”, shorty bull, “XL”, “XXL” and you’re thinking to yourself what does that even mean!?
American Bullies are thick, beautiful, impressive muscular dogs with a great disposition towards other dogs, people and children. When bred correctly, they are athletic and can really move. Obviously not in the same way a 45lb American Pit Bull Terrier can.. They carry a lot more muscle, and some of the gameness has been bred out. Which makes them perfect family companions.
So.. The American Bullies that you’ve seen on line have caught your eye, but there’s so many different types and names being thrown around, you have no clue where to start and you’re afraid to ask. That’s ok, we’re here to help.
Understand the History
The American Bully breed was created around 1990 and gained recognition and establishment in 2004 with the inception of the ABKC Registry. The United Kennel Club or UKC recognized the American Bully breed in 2013. There are other registries, but for the purposes of this article we will mention the main two- which are the ABKC and UKC.
According to the ABKC-The American Bully breed has been selectively bred to give America’s breed, the American Pit Bull Terrier, a new direction and outlet. Like with the American Staffordshire Terrier (which is also an offshoot of the American Pit Bull Terrier) all of the positive characteristics of the breed’s ancestry were kept.
These Include loyalty, stability with humans and children, along with their physical attributes. Traits of dog and human aggression have been bred out, as they have no future purpose for that trait (outside of hunting & sport)
According to the UKC- The American Bully breed was subtly influenced by the infusion of several other breeds, which include the American Bulldog, English Bulldog and Olde English Bulldogge.
What differentiates this breed from the American Staffordshire Terrier and the American Pit Bull Terrier, is it’s physical appearance. The American Bully carries much heavier bone structure and a “bullier” build. A reinvented breed was formed with the purpose of being the ultimate companion breed, and this breed is the “American Bully.”
The American Bully is a companion breed exhibiting confidence, a zest for life, along with an exuberant will to please and companionship with their family. This making the American Bully an excellent family companion.
Despite the American Bully’s fierce and powerful appearance their demeanor is gentle and great with kids. They are friendly with strangers, other dogs, and other animals. Human or dog aggression, extreme shyness or viciousness is very uncharacteristic of the American Bully and is highly undesirable.
It is important to note the ABKC got rid of the extreme class. So there are currently 4 Classes
This is an amendment to the basic standard which a Pocket Bully is determined by its adult height. Males under 17″ and no less than 14″ at the withers. Females under 16″ and no less than 13″ at the withers.
The American Bully should give the impression of great strength for it’s size. It is a compact and medium/large size dog with a muscular body and blocky head. The American Bully should have the appearance of heavy bone structure with a bulky build and look.
Males 17 inches – 20 inches (43 cm – 51 cm) at the withers. Females 16 inches – 19 inches (40 cm – 48 cm) at the withers. Important to note that the Standard American Bully dogs are not to be penalized for exhibiting heavily muscled, massive, bulky body type.
This is an amendment to the basic standard. A Classic Bully variety is simply an American Bully dog having lighter body frames (lighter bone) and less overall body mass (less substance) than the Standard American Bully. Aside from this difference, the Classic Bully variety follows the same standard as the Standard American Bully.
Males 17 inches – 20 inches (43 cm – 51 cm) at the withers. Females 16 inches – 19 inches (40 cm – 48 cm) at the withers.
This is an amendment to the basic standard, determined by it’s adult height. Males over 20"-23" at the withers. Females over 19"-22" at the withers. It is important to note that the XL Bully variety is simply taller than the Standard American Bully. XL dogs share the same build, body type and breed type as the Standard American Bully.
This isn’t a real classification of American Bully. If a dog reaches the height and size of an XL, that’s it’s class. Please stop using this term.
The American Bully in itself is a faily new breed — barely 25 years in the making and steming off from the bullier type American Pitbull Terriers, American Staffordshires and various types of bulldogs. The American Bully has a bullier, shorter, more compact, dense body than your average pit bull.
The exotic bully however, is a relatively new term for the somewhat “overdone” type of American Bullies. These American Bullies tend to favor more of the “Bull” side of the Pit Bull, often being mixed with smaller bulldogs. They often have exaggerated features and a plethora of issues.
It is our hope that this article helps to give some insight into this incredible breed. For More News, Articles & Features & Photos on the Best American Bullies visit ourblogor stop by ourwebsite!
Razors Edge Pitbulls was started in MD and DC by Dave Wilson and Carlos Barksdale. They initially started out with game dogs. To be clear: this article is referring to “Razor’s Edge Pitbulls” it’s history before later playing a key role in the Evolution of the American Bully. This article details the beginning of Razors […]